Anthropology 215 Final Key Terms Essay

a process a problem is defined in medical terms, described using medical language, understood though the adoption of a medical framework, or ‘treated’with a medical intervention
Characteristics of medicalization
1) a previously non-medical problem (such as behavior) gets defined in medical terms 2) It is bidirectional -some behaviors become demedicalized whereas others get medicalized 3) source of problem located in the individual and the solution is sought in medicine (drug, therapies) 4) various degrees of medicalization exists
Understandings of deafness and Deafness
deafness interpreted as an individual deficit, brought on by illness, genetic deficiencies, or prenatal infection – intervention seen as cure, no-ethical Deafness is a culture, not a disease but made into a disability – intervention is erasure of culture, seen as denying people’s rights to become part of it
Composite masculinities
set of glasses through which Wentzel investigates the men’s lives and how the men make sense of their bodily changes and local norms/ideas about Mexican masculinity, sexuality, bodies, and age.
Masculinity as grounded in body and enacted (=performed, carried out daily )
– men “do” their masculinity: give it shape/ form in different ways – given shape by cultural ideas of manhood (manhood, responsibility, strong, protective & good looking) & personal ideas and experiences – rather speaking of masculinities (plural) rather than masculinity
Erectile difficulties vs. erectile dysfunction
erectile difficulties = experiencing problems with erections and related sexual challenges; erectile dysfunction = official medical term that refers to the situation when a man can no longer get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse
Erectile difficulties as medical condition & as personal experience
“An emasculating truth”
being a man is not about what you do, it’s being responsible and be what you want to be
perceived biological differences between males and females, often attributed to different reproductive characteristics
culture ideas about what it is to be a man or woman – masculine or feminine
sexual preference; the expression of erotic desire
grounded in biology and medical care; “sexual”variance
Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)
Congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex is atypical”
grounded in mental health; “gender” variannce
social processes through which ideas and actions come to be seen as ‘normal’ and become taken for granted or ‘natural’ in everyday life
Sex defined as two (male and female) is a cultural product
the idea of being male and female is interpreted differently in different cultures
Think critically about medicalization of bodies that do not align neatly as either
male or female
Concerns expressed by clinicians, parents, and people diagnosed with
intersexuality regarding medical intervention
-Any metabolic concerns? Life-‐‐threatening circumstances?
-How do parents deal with child? fear? guilt? rejection? silence? acceptance? social climate?
-will genital intervention secure gender self-‐‐identification?
-early intervention better than later in life?
-are parents able to talk about sexuality, erotics, and sex of their newborn?
-anxiety over child rearing and child care • fears of relatives’ and friends’ responses • conflicting ideas about sex and gender as embodied by their child
-anxieties and worries over caring for a child with chronic disease, frequent medical visits, surgical interventions, life long drug treatment regimes
-When to intervene? Or at all?
-learn to live with childhood informed by parental guilt, shame, and secrecy
-experiences of clinical objectionable
-dealing with parental dynamics
– “coming out” as intersex (in recent years) -accepting a surgically altered body, or not
– getting help and finding others
Public health approach to addiction Ukraine
Role of self-care in addiction care
self address issue
Addiction as cultural product
like any medical condition it is understood
differently across culture, and people may seek care in different places
Aesthetic medicine
ex: plastic surgery
2 approaches to studying and understanding plastic surgery
– feminist theory emphasis on structure and domination
– anthro: aesthethicc health (mixing of health and beauty) in changing societies
Global health-public health
global health – focuses on issues that directly or indirectly affect health but that can transcend national boundaries, development and implementation of solutions often requires global cooperation, embraces both prevention in populations and clinical care of individuals, health equity among nations and all people is a major objective
public health – focuses on issues that affect the health of the population of a particular community or country, strong focus on prevention programs for populations
Structural violence
a form of violence wherein some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs
Global health as system of aid grounded in unequal, power relationships
Ethical variability
medical experimentation, what is and what is not okay to do
Tuskegee study + racial ideas underlying study
-doctors portrayed black Alabamans as resistant to health measures, intellectually inferior, impetuous, and degenerate (=scientific racism)
-commonly held idea that syphilis would progress differently in white and black bodies -‐‐ wanted to study the onset and evolution of disease
-black men recruited under guise of ‘treatment’
-until 1972 withheld treatment despite availability of penicillin as accurate cure
International relations shaping clinical trials locally
Scientific racism – Medical Apartheid
Medical Apartheid- a history of abuse of medical experimentation on African Americans, who have served for centuries as unwilling and unwieng subjec
Guinea pigging
phase 1 of trial where small trial with healthy volunteers to test for safety and usage
3 motivations for engaging in self-experimentation
-reliability (self-‐‐experimenters are highly motivated to sick to dietary rules, potential errors by human behavior can be avoided)
-dependability (physicians are trained as good, dependable observers)
-firsthand experience (by submieng themselves to trial, they now the trial is safe, or saver, for other
Culinary care
Importance of unmedicalizing health
some issues might not be actual issues
Obesity as epidemic
obesity is a problem that is rising and world-wide
Drawing upon Peter Conrad’s chapter on medicalization, describe the concept
“medicalization” and list some of its main characteristics.
a process of medicalizing a problem and solve it using medical approaches. previously unmedicalized condition gets medicalized’ bidirectional; sought out using medicine; various degrees
According to Emily Wentzell, what are “composite masculinities”? Can you
explain this term in your own words using examples from the book?
ex: machismo
How does the video “An emasculating truth” help you understand how men, in different countries and cultures, express their masculinity differently? Thus, can you link the video to Wentzell’s book?
definitions of “men” are different, different in different cultures…
Do men, in Wentzell’s book, interpret erectile difficulties as a medical condition
such as “erectile dysfunction”? How do their ideas of age and masculinity shape
their use of Viagra? What are men’s perceptions of masculinity? How do they
“do” masculinity on a daily basis (which activities, ideas?)
they do interpret but most don’t go straight to viagara but use alternative medicine such as vitamin; the older to age to less likely to use viagara; perceptions of masculinity is that ED is just part of it.
Why do some men, according to Emily Wentzell, reject erectile dysfunction
drugs, such as Viagra? Can you offer two reasons why?
-Reported as too expensive
-Lack of trust and attentiveness in public care system
-Lack of distribution drugs
-ED drugs experienced as dangerous
Explain Colapinto’s title of the article “The true story of John/Joan.” Phrased
differently, what is “true” about the story?
Explain the difference between gender, sex, and sexuality.
sex: biological differences; gender: cultural perception; sexuality: sexual preference
Reflecting upon the lecture on the medicalization of beauty, describe an important
difference in the approach of feminist theory’s and anthropology’s study of
cosmetic surgery. Where do they each place a different emphasis or focus?
feminist: patriarchy; forced
Describe what is “aesthetic health” and, while drawing upon lecture notes or
Edmond’s article on cosmetic surgery in Brazil, give an example of how beauty
has become a concern and locus of attention in today’s medical practices.
According to Nichter and Pfeiffer, how can critical medical anthropology
contribute to global health?
further understand their health care providing system and their issues, reasons
Drawing upon the lecture on global health, what is “global health” and what are
some of its characteristics?
What is “scientific racism”? Give an example of how doctors used “scientific”
ideas grounded in racism in support of the Tuskegee Study (use Washington’s
chapter and/or lecture notes)?
the idea that races are biologically different
What ethical questions might you ask about traveling trials?
Drawing up lecture, what challenges faced African researchers when conducting HIVNET 012?
research ethics; guidelines; incomplete report of illness and death; inaccuracy of dosage; unapproved dosages made to testing
To get a strong summary of Washington’s chapter: can you draw a short timeline of the study (when did it start and end?) and which ideas drove the implementation and continuation of the Tuskegee Study? Can you describe two ideas?
1932: study starts; they needed people and 36% of African Americans were tested positive for syphilis
Drawing upon Roberto Abadie’s study of participation in medical trials, give 2 factors why medical trials’ validity can sometimes be questioned or become a
cause of concern?
multiple trials spontaneously; outliers not reported; ignore six months wait periods.
Drawing upon Yates-Doerr’s article on obesity in Guatemala, why is it important
to study local understandings of health and nutrition when trying to implement international health policy aimed at reducing obesity?
root causes
Explain the title “Demedicalizing health” as used by Carney and Yates-Doerr?
perceptions of health different between culinary care/kitchen and anthropological definition

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