AP Government (7) Study Guide Remainder

The low rates of voter turnout for Hispanic and Asian American immigrants are largely due to the fact that they
are not citizens yet
reported voter turnout ____ as age ____.
increases, increases
In the years following the adoption of the Constitution, many states placed legal restrictions on the right to vote because of
the belief that since many government decisions affect property, one should own property to vote
The number of members each state will have in the Electoral College ntatives and senators a state has in Congress.
is determined by adding the number of representatives and senators a state has in Congress.
The manner in which members of the electoral college are selected within each state is currently governed by
state laws.
In cases where no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral college vote
the House decides
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Initiative is a form of direct democracy in which citizens can
bypass the legislative process.
*in a recall election voters can
a special election called by voters to remove an elected official before his/her term expires.
Initiative, referendum, and recall measures often are on the ballot in?
off years
The most important factor across nations related to increased voter turnout is
competitive elections
People who choose to run for office can be divided into two groups:
those who are self starters and those who are recruited
***By 2007 the number of African American elected officials was estimated to be about
In a 2007 poll, approximately _____ of American respondents would not say they were completely comfortable voting for an African-American president.
15%
Politicians who run for lower offices and then aspire to Congress may be said to have
progressive ambitions
Naturalized citizens are constitutionaly barred from running for the office of
President of the United States
A candidate for the U.S Senate
must be resident of the state from which elected
Holders of political office in the United States today are overwhelmingly
white and male
In the last twenty years the number of women running for office at the federal and state level has
increased significantly
Which of the following statements about election campaigns is NOT true?
1. Lation and Asian Americans have low participation on election campaigns.
2. Until recently, women were considered most appropriate for lower-level posts.
3. National campaigns are handled by volunteers and amateur politicians.
4. Candidates are likely to be professionals, particularly lawyers.
3. National campaigns are handled by volunteers and amateur politicians.
According to a recent Gallup Poll, almost _______ of Americans said they would vote for a qualified woman for president
85%
Candidates for public office are likely to be
lawyers
One of the reasons that campaigns no longer depend on political parties is
that fewer people identify with them.
Most political consultants
will work only for candidates of one political party.
In today’s campaigns, volunteers and amateurs are
primarily used for last-minute registration and voter turnout activities.
Part of the reason for the increased intensity of campaigns in the last decade is that they are now centered on the
candidate and not on the party
A striking feature of today’s political campaigns is the
importance of paid professionals rather than volunteers.
The goal (s) of a political campaign
is to win the election
In order to win in American politics today, candidates seek to capture _______ of the votes of their party’s supporters, a __________ of the independent voters and a ________ votes from supporters of the other party.
all, majority, few
If a candidate is a highly visible incumbent seeking reelection,
there may be little need for campaigning except to remind the voters of the officeholder’s good deeds.
In the case of the independent candidate or the candidate representing a minor party, the most serious problem is
name recognition
Tracking polls are used
on a daily basis to determine last-minute changes in the mood of the electorate.
A small group of individuals which is gathered to identify in-depth feelings about candidates and issues is called
a focus group.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974 did not
provide public funding for Congressional elections.
The state of Vermont prompted political controversy and legal challenges in 1997 when it enacted legislation
limiting the amount of money spent by candidates for state offices.
For a federal political action committee (PAC) to be legitimate, it must
contribute to at least five federal candidates
raise money from at least 50 volunteer donors
Most PAC contributions go to
incumbents
Soft money
was no longer available to the national political parties after 2002.
Advertising paid for by interest groups that support or oppose a candidate or a candidate’s position on an issue without mentioning voting or elections is called
issue advocacy advertising.
independent expenditures
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them.
Bipartisan campaign reform act of 2002
banned soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions; independent expenditures by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted, The elimination of “soft money”
After the constitutionality of the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 was challenged
a U.S. district court judge struck down more than a dozen regulations issued by the Federal Election Commissions interpreting the Campaign Finance Reform Act.
***About ____ of all campaign funds raised by House candidates in 2006 came from PACs
***in 2005-2006, political action committees spent more than ______.
The purpose of introducing the primary as a means of nominating candidates for office was to
open the nomination process to ordinary party members and to weaken the influence of party bosses
The process of nominating presidential candidates is now controlled by the
mass public rather than party elites
A party leader or elected official who is given the right to vote at the national convention is called
a super delegate
When only declared party members can vote in a primary election, it is called
a closed primary
when voters can vote in either party primary without disclosing their party affiliation, it is called
an open primary
When the top two candidates in a primary compete in a second primary for the majority of votes, it is called
a run-off primary

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