APUSH study guide chapter 8 + 9

battle of saratoga 1777
colonists defeated British army led by general John Burgoyne in Saratoga, NY, forced Burgoyne to surrender –> turning point in war bc it won the support of the French, which helped the Americans get much needed military aid
battle of yorktown 1781
the British dig into the hills of the rural area in preparation for a battle. Americans plea with the french to aid, and the French Alliance pays off; Cornwallis, in an attempt to sustain his army, calls for reinforcements but cannot get any because the British ships block any reinforcements from coming through. Cornwallis must surrender his army to Washington
french in revolutionary war
1776, Louis XVI authorized secret aid to the American rebels. Smuggled supplies through Britain’s weak blockade of the American coast. 1778, Franklin and Vergennes signed 2 treaties. A commercial agreement granting Americans generous trading terms with the French and a perpetual alliance with
treaty of paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
civic virtue
People who exemplify this quality go beyond their obligations by taking an active role in improving the community and the experiences of other members of the community.
slavery laws post revolution
no states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery, and both north ans south the law discriminated harshly against freed blacks and slaves alike. they could be barred from holding certain jobs and educating their children. laws against interracial marriage.
republican motherhood
An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation’s conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
laws of primogeniture post revolution
citizens in several states flushed with republican ferver sawed off remaining shackles of medieval inheritance laws such as primogeniture, which awarded all of a fathers property to the eldest son.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for Independence.
Belonged to church of England and came to America to ‘purify’ the church of England.
loyalist exodus
Throughout the war those loyal to the crown were persecuted and kicked out of their homes by the patriots and their land was sold to pay for the war/
common sense thomas paine
powerful pamphlet telling the colonists to break free. British were trying to destroy colonies’ natural rights. Government is there to protect life liberty and property. Power came from people, not kings. Colonies don’t benefit from British Empire.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
falmouth norfolk
two towns were attacked by the British and disturbed colonists into turning from the crown
colonial ambivilence for independence
continued to deny any intention of independence. loyalty to the empire was deeply ingrained, many continued to consider themselves part of a transatlantic community in which the mother country of Britain played a leading role
richard henry lee
a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770’s. On June 7, 1776 he declared, “These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.” This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
declaration of independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
explanation of independence
AKA…the celaration of independence….saying it is an expalanation of why they are breaking away from britain
thomas jefferson
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
general john burgoyne
British general appointed by King George III to crush the rebel forces; 1777, subordinate of Howe, lead invading force down Hudson from Canada to Alabany; was present at the Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Yorktown
battle of bunker hill 1775
Fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed’s Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia’s retreat, though at a heavy cost to the British.
battle of trenton 1776
Washington launched a surprise attack on Christmas, he and men crossed Delaware at night and attacked Hessian troops as they slept –> American soldiers gained confidence
battle of saratoga 1777
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war.

Caused France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

general william howe
He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777. He resigned in 1778.

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