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Chapter 11, 12, 13, 14 Psych 321 Essay

According to Bandura, people automatically model what they have observed.
True
False
FALSE
Which of the following is not a self-regulation process?
Self-observation
Judgmental processes
Vicarious observation
Self-Response
Vicarious observation
Outcome expectations are the same, theoretically, as self-efficacy.
True
False
FALSE
Bandura subscribes to which theoretical orientation?
Behavioral
A recognition of the role of personality, situation, behavior, and fortuitous chance help offer a complete understanding of personality according to Bandura.
True
False
TRUE
Even though his father was absent when he was a child, Barack Obama had a number of significant models in his life.
True
False
TRUE
Bandura expanded learning theory by his work on the importance of
extinction.
generalization.
modeling.
punishment.
Modeling
In their research on modeling, Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) found that children are most likely to imitate adults who are the same sex as the child.
nurturant.
high status.
powerful.
Powerful
Bandura’s studies of modeling in children were designed to investigate the
psychoanalytic concept of
Oedipal rivalry.
sibling rivalry.
superego development.
identification.
identification.
Shelly believes that he can organize and execute his course of action to deal with an upcoming situation. This is called:
self-effectiveness
self-efficacy
self-confidence
self-drive
self-efficacy
Which is a good way to build a sense of efficacy in athletes?
Drilling
Modeling confidence
Encouraging positive talk
All of the above
All of the above
Optimism is
A. similar to efficacy in its effects on behavior.
B. the opposite of efficacy in its effects on behavior.
C. immature and unhealthy.
D. an early form of efficacy.
A. similar to efficacy in its effects on behavior.
Personality influences behavior in that individuals often make choices based on their
personalities.
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
Aggression can be learned from modeling.
Ex: Tina watches her mother hit the dog. She then could learn to hit the dog aggressively,
by watching her mother.
True
False
TRUE
According to Bandura’s research, children who have observed aggressive models may not behave aggressively, even if they have learned to do so, if they lack
A. incentives.
B. courage.
C. an audience.
incentives.
Bethany says, “If someone is careless enough to leave their car unlocked, it’s their own fault if the car isn’t there in the morning.” According to Bandura, this illustrates
moral disengagement.
ego identification.
reaction formation.
self-efficacy.
moral disengagement.
Students high in self-efficacy
A. get better grades.
B. give up easily.
C. don’t need to study very much.
D. are more anxious about tests.
get better grades.
Human agency is when individuals act with intention, after thought, self-reactiveness, and
self-reflectiveness.
True
False
FALSE
Modeling is limited to childhood.
FALSE
Receiving good grades in small assignments in class should ___ self-efficacy for students
in a classroom.
increase
A person who is dressed in distinctive, eye-catching clothes is assured at least of meeting the requirements of the __________ process of learning.
retention
attentional
motivational
motor reproduction
attentional
Parents who set high standards for their own behavior are likely to have children who also
set high standards.
True
False
True
Which of the following is not one of the four processes required for learning to take place
according to Bandura?
Attentional Processes
Detention Processes
Motor Reproduction Processes
Motivational Processes
Detention Processes
Based on research by Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963), we would expect that
D. children will identify with the father in a two-parent family, whether he works or stays at home.
A. children will identify with the mother in a two-parent family, whether she works or
stays at home.
B. children will identify with the working parent in a two-parent family, whether that
parent is the mother or the father.
C. children will identify with the caretaking parent in a two-parent family, whether that
parent is the father or the mother.
B. children will identify with the working parent in a two-parent family, whether that
parent is the mother or the father.
Human agency involves an individual using all but
Self-reflectiveness
Intention
After thought
Self- reactiveness
After thought
Bandura’s research on modeling found that children are most likely to imitate adults who
are powerful.
True
False
TRUE
What recommendation does Bandura offer to make people behave more morally?
Teach them moral lessons in childhood.
Provide models of moral behavior.
Increase social control over behavior.
Appeal to their religious sentiments.
Increase social control over behavior.
Bandura’s concept of __________ describes the mutual influences of the person, the
environment, and behavior.
attentional processes
self-regulation
reciprocal determinism
symbolic coding
reciprocal determinism
People with high self-efficacy try harder.
TRUE
Bandura and colleagues demonstrated that children can learn __________ through
modeling.
B. aggression
C. performance standards
A. arbitrary playful behaviors
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Children sometimes imitate aggression less if they see the model punished for being
aggressive.
True
False
TRUE
Outcome expectations are
the same as
A. self-efficacy.
B. beliefs about how much effort is required to achieve a desirable outcome.
C. beliefs about what will happen if a behavior is performed.
D. not important in Bandura’s theory.
beliefs about what will happen if a behavior is performed.
Bandura’s research suggests that parents who wish to have children who aim for high goals should
A. model high standards for behavior.
B. punish low performance.
C. tell their children about the difficulties of the real world.
D. be nurturant.
A. model high standards for behavior.
Bandura would say all but which of the following are important in understanding
personality
A. The situation
B. Behavior
C. Fortuitous chance
D. All the above are important
All the above are important
Self-efficacy has been found to help treatment programs for
A. phobias.
B. weight loss.
C. AIDS prevention.
D. all of the above
all of the above
Research suggests that self-efficacy beliefs have the greatest effect on task performance
at the beginning of the task .
True
False
TRUE
“Attentional processes” refers to
what we observe or pay attention to.
what we remember.
what we are motivated to do.
what we are able to do.
what we observe or pay attention to.
The term “retention process” refers to
A. noticing a model.
B. remembering what a model has done.
C. doing what a model has done.
D. deciding whether it is worthwhile to behave as a model has done.
B. remembering what a model has done.
A student who believes he or she can memorize all the definitions in the book, but still will not get a good grade, has
low self-efficacy expectations.
low outcome expectations.
both low efficacy expectations and low outcome expectations.
a phobia.
low outcome expectations.
Bandura recommends that self-efficacy should be measured
A. separately for each area of behavior.
B. by projective tests.
C. globally
separately for each area of behavior.
When considering goals, one should consider
A. Setting subgoals to help work toward long-term goals
B. One’s possible self
C. One’s negative possible self
D. All the above
E. None of the above
All of the above
A student has just started working on a term paper, which is supposed to be 40
pages long. One way to increase a sense of efficacy is to
realize that writing 4 pages a week for 10 weeks will complete the task.
Which of the following does not help guide one’s self regulation?
Setting high goals
Considering one’s possible self
Considering one’s negative possible self
Setting low goals
Setting low goals
A baseball player who repeatedly practices batting a ball, trying to improve, is working on the __________ phase of learning.
A. attentional
B. retention
C. motor reproduction
motor reproduction
The CAPS model is intended to show an individual’s global traits.
FALSE
Personal constructs are trait terms that people use to describe themselves and other people.
TRUE
Expectancies are internal, subjective beliefs about what will happen in a situation.
TRUE
The ability to delay gratification does not occur until young adulthood.
FALSE
According to Mischel and Wright, behavior results from a set of conditions, rather than from a trait alone.
TRUE
Instead of traits, Mischel uses the term personal constructs.
TRUE
Ego resiliency is the ability to change one’s behavior based on the demands of the situation.
TRUE
Learning theory predicts that behavior in different situations will always be consistent.
FALSE
According to Mischel, behavior
is situational, and depends on situations.
Personal constructs are all except
A. Used by individuals to describe themselves
B. Universal
C. Used by individuals to describe others
D. A part of an individual’s unique self-system
B. Universal
Showing ability to delay gratification has predictive power over an individual’s future
A. divorce rate.
B. substance abuse.
C. career choice.
A. divorce rate.
Tom, an extrovert, knows how to begin a conversation with a stranger and can think of
things to say pretty rapidly. According to Mischel, this is one of Tom’s _____________
A. constructs
B. prototypes
C. expectancies
D. competencies
D. competencies
In Michel’s research, the average correlation between self-report personality measures
and behavior was
.30
“If I ask Jane to go to the movies, will she go, or reject me?” This is a question of
A. reciprocal determinism.
B. stimulus-outcome expectancies.
C. behavior-outcome expectancies.
D. self-efficacy expectancies.
C. behavior-outcome expectancies.
In Mischel’s research, preschoolers delayed their gratification by waiting for
A. birthday presents.
B. recess.
C. pretzels and marshmallows.
D. the end of class.
C. pretzels and marshmallows.
According to Mischel and his colleagues, the effect of traits on behavior depends upon
A. the person.
B. the time of day.
C. the situation.
D. the observer.
C. the situation.
Construction competencies are described by all except
A. What a person knows
B. What a person is able to do
C. What a person actually does
D. Include many learned behaviors
C. What a person actually does
Social stereotypes, such as nerd, doctor, comedian, romantic love, etc., are _________ in
Mischel’s theory.
A. prototypes
Delay of gratification is easier if
A. the rewards are visible.
B. the child thinks about how good the reward is.
C. the child sees models who delay their own gratification.
D. all of the above
C. the child sees models who delay their own gratification.
Adam doesn’t know whether he will be thanked or criticized if he helps cook dinner. He is
uncertain about
A. self-efficacy expectancies.
B. competencies.
C. encoding strategies.
D. behavior-outcome expectancies.
D. behavior-outcome expectancies.
“If Jerry is shouting now, he may soon hit.” This is an example of a __________.
stimulus-outcome expectancy
Mischel focuses particularly on __________ variables.
A. cognitive
B. environmental
C. motivational
D. situational
A. cognitive
“I will pass the Introduction to Personality class with an A.” This is an example of:
A. Behavior-outcome expectancies
B. Stimulus-outcome expectancies
C. Self-efficacy expectancies
D. Self-regulatory expectancies
C. Self-efficacy expectancies
Which of the following makes delaying gratification easier, according to Michel’s
“Marshmallow Test?”
A. thinking about how good the marshmallow will taste
B. looking at the marshmallow
C. thinking about something other than the marshmallow
D. watching someone else eat a marshmallow
C. thinking about something other than the marshmallow
Cognitive affective units allow for the study of
A. Individuals
B. Groups with similar experiences
C. Racial disparity and its effect on behavioral differences
D. All the above
D. All the above

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