Chapter 5: The Roman Republic

By the latter Republic, Roman slaves
often worked on the Roman latifundia AND always received humane treatment from their owners
For the Romans, Italy’s geography
made Rome a natural crossroads and an area easy to defend
Which of the following statements about marriage best captures the realities for Roman women by the 1st century B.C.E.?
they were legally controlled by their husbands
The First Triumvirate was a political alliance between Crassus, Julius Caesar, and
Pompey
After imposed retirement from Roman politics, Cicero took up writing
philosophical treatises
The result of the Third Punic War was
the complete destruction and subjugation of Carthage
The most significant non-Latin influence upon early Rome came from the Etruscans
True
The main achievement of the Hortensian law in Roman constitutional history was its
ruling that all plebiscita passed by the plebeian assembly had the force of law and were binding even upon the patricians
What was the significance of Scipio Africanus in the Second Punic War?
He expelled the Carthaginians from Spain and later won the decisive Battle of Zama
In their struggle with the patricians, Roman plebeians employed which of the following tactics
a physical withdrawal from the state undercutting its military manpower AND the formation of popular assemblies to lobby for more political reforms
During the Third Punic War against Carthage, in the east in 148 B.C.E. the Romans made Egypt a Roman province
False
The college of augurs existed to
interpret auspices- signs sent to humans by the gods
The Roman Dictator
was a temporary executive during the period of the Republic AND exercised unlimited power for a period of usually six months
Romans did not readily accept any Greek philosophy except that of
Stoicism, because of its emphasis on virtue and duty
The Struggle of the Orders
was a peaceful struggle which resulted in political compromise
The reforms of Gaius and Tiberius Gracchus
resulted in further instability and violence as they polarized various social groups
Imperium was
the power to command Roman citizens
Tiberius Gracchus ran for tribune in 133 B.C.E. on a program of
providing farms to landless farmers
The Twelve Tables was/were
the first formal codification of Roman law and customs
Cicero
All of the above:
-believed in a “concord of the orders.”
-was a “new man” of the equestrian order
-was a great orator and capable lawyer
-advocated a balanced government of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy
The paterfamilias in Roman society was
the male head of the household
Like most of the great Roman writers of the first century B.C.E., Catullus was from Rome
False
The Etruscans were
an urban civilization to the north of Rome
It can best be said that Roman imperial expansion was
highly opportunistic, responding to unanticipated military threats and possibilities for glory
The Centuriate Assembly was made up of Roman citizens voting by
precincts
After the Latin revolt (440-338 B.C.E.) Rome
enrolled the Latin cities as military allies
The head of the Roman religious observances was
the pontifex maximus
In defeating the Greek city-states in southern Italy, Rome
had to fight the soldiers of King Pyrrhus, sent against them by the Greeks
Livy’s account of Cincinnatus
tells how the virtues of duty and simplicity in the behavior of leaders enabled Rome to survive in difficult times
Which Roman writer is most closely associated with the development of a new poetry at the end of the Roman Republic?
Catullus
The Carthaginian general who marauded through the Italian peninsula during the Second Punic War was Hamilcar Barca
False
The Carthaginians originated from
Phoenician Tyre
Which of the following statements about Roman names is incorrect?
The nomen was the hereditary family name.
The Second Punic War saw Carthage
carry a land war to Rome by crossing the Alps
Originally the Roman senate
could only advise the magistrates in legal matters
Ius gentium
the law of the nations- “that part of law which we apply to ourselves and to foreigners”
Optimates
type of aristocratic leader (“the best men”); hobiles who controlled the senate and wished to change their oligarchial privileges
Equites
social group in Rome- Equestrians- once formed Rome’s cavalry; wealthy people
Among the dangerous military innovations of Marius threatening the Republic, one finds he
recruited destitue volunteers who swore an oath of allegiance only to him
Caesar crossing the Rubicon
showed that he was willing to disobey the direct orders of the senate, “being unable to turn back”
Antony and Cleopatra
they fell deeply in love and had three children; gave her lands in eastern mediterranean
Julius Ceasar
led military commands in Spain and especially Gaul that enhanced his popularity
Hamilcar Barca
extended Carthage’s domains in Spain to compensate for the territory lost to Rome;
led Carthage in the fight against Rome for Sicily

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