US History Benchmark Review 2

Harriet Beecher Stowe
This woman wrote the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Fugitive Slave Law
This law said that the North had to return runaway slaves to the South.
Compromise of 1850
Stephen Douglas signed this law into effect to get the railroad to come through Chicago. In doing this he opened up areas of the Louisiana Territory to popular sovereignty. This act reversed the Missouri Compromise.
Kansas
In this state civil war broke out between those in favor of and those against slavery.
Charles Sumner
This radical abolitionist senator from Massachusetts was beat over the head with a cane in the Congress of the US after making his “Crimes against Kansas” speech.
Republican
This political party was founded in the 1850s and was opposed to any expansion of slavery.
Dred Scott Decision
This court case ignited protest when Supreme Court said that slaves could be brought to any US territory and that blacks were not citizens.
John Brown
This man was hanged for being a radical abolitionist. He chopped up bodies at Potowatomie Creek, Kansas and tried to start a slave rebellion at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
Election of Lincoln
South Carolina seceded from the Union immediately following this event…….
Abraham Lincoln
This man was the president during the Civil War.
Jefferson Davis
This man was the president of the Confederacy.
Fort Sumter
The Southern attack on this fort officially started the Civil War.
More soldiers, More factories, and a Navy.
What were three advantages of the North in the Civil War?
A. Better generals
B.Better soldiers
C. Fighting defensive wars
D. Help from Great Britain
E. Help from God
What were five advantages of the South in the Civil War?
A. Blockade the coast
B. Control of the Mississippi River
C. Divide the Confederacy
What was the three part strategy of the North in the Civil War?(The Anaconda Plan)
A. Quick battles and retreat
B. Fight a defensive war
What was the two part strategy of the South in the Civil War?
Shiloh
It was after this important battle that Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclomation. This battle was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War.
Copperheads
These were Northern Democrats during the Civil War who favored peace with the South.
Battle of Gettysburg
This battle was the turning point in the Civil War. This battlefield was turned into a national cemetery.
Grant and Sherman
Name the two most well known northern generals in the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson
Name the two most well known southern generals in the Civil War.
General Sherman
This Northern General marched though the south and destroyed everything in his path to break the will of the south to fight. This march was called the “March to the Sea”.
Appomattox Courthouse
Robert E. Lee surrendered here at the end of the Civil War.
54th Massachusetts
This was one of the first black regiments that fought in the Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth
President Lincoln was killed by this man.
Ford Theater
President Lincoln was shot in this theater in Washington, DC.
Radical Republicans
This was the group of Northern Republicans in Congress that wanted to punish the South for the Civil War.
Stevens and Sumner
These were the two most famous of the Radical Republicans.
Freedmen’s Bureau
This organization was established after the Civil War to help x-slaves and poor whites.
A. Pledge loyalty to the Union
B. Obey new slavery laws
Abraham Lincoln wanted a painless form of reconstruction. According to Lincoln, what did the southern states have to do to send representatives back to Congress.
black codes
These laws put restrictions on freed African Americans after the thirteenth amendment was signed.
Carpetbaggers
People from the north that moved to the south after the Civil War to help with reconstruction were called…….
Scalawags
Southern Republicans who sympathized with the north and with freed African Americans during the war were called…………
Ku Klux Klan
This radical hate group began to emerge in the south during the period of Reconstruction.
Andrew Johnson
What president was impeached by the House of Representatives for breaking the Tenure of Office Act?
Sharecropper
This economic system appeared in the South after the Civil War to give the wealthy land owners labor and freed slaves as well as the poor some land to work on.
-Grandfather Clause
-Poll tax
-Ku Klux Klan
-Literacy test
What were four ways that African Americans were kept from voting in the South?
Plessy v. Ferguson
This famous court case began the practice of “seperate but equal” in relation to the races.
Booker T. Washington
This black leader after the Civil War believed that African Americans would advance themselves through practical, technical training.
Hayes and Tilden
A deal cut in the election of 1876 brought reconstruction to an end in the South. What two men ran in this election? This was called the Compromise of 1877.
These were the three civil war amendments. What did each accomplish?
Amendment What it Did
13th Freed Slaves
14th Citizenship to ex-slaves
15th Gave a vote to freed male slaves
Sand Creek Massacre
This massacre caused the death of hundreds of Cheyenne Indians in Colorado
Geronimo
This famous Indian medicine man encouraged his people to resist reservation life.
Sitting Bull
This famous Indian general defeated General George Custer at the battle of Little Big Horn.
Dawes Act
This act of Congress was designed to assimilate or Americanize the American Indians by outlawing group ownership of land through granting every head of household 160 acres of land.
Battle of Little Bighorn
This confrontation between the Sioux Indians and the Seventh Calvary is considered to be final confrontation on the wars between the US Government and the Indians of the Plains.
Helen Hunt Jackson
This woman wrote the book A Century of Dishonor to protest the treatment of the Native Americans by the government of the US.
Pacific Railroad Act
This act passed by Congress set up the first transcontinental railroad line in the US.
Homestead Act
This act passed by congeress gave 160 acres of land to any American who came to the west and ran a productive farm for five years.
Prometory Point, Utah
This is the name of the town in which the first transcontinental railroad was finally finished.
Joseph Glidden
This man changed ranching on the Great Plains when he invented barbed wire.
Morill Land Grant Act
This act was passed by the goverment to fund agricultural schools in the west
Pendleton Act
This act required that 10 percent of federal government employees take “civil service” exams to prove their competence.
Robber Barons
These were business pople who made great amounts of money in the late 1800s and were very corrupt.
Oil and Electricity
These were the two major energy sources of the second industrial revolution.
Steel
This became the most important metal of the second industrial revolution.
Thomas Edison
This man made many useful inventions that used electricity such as the light bulb, the motion picture camera, the microphone, and the phonograph.
Alexander Graham Bell
This man invented the Telephone.
Laissez-faire
This literally means “hands off”. It is the idea that the government should stay out of economic affairs.
Andrew Carnegie
This man made his money in the production of steel. He used a business method called vertical integration. By the time he retired he was the wealthiest man in the world.
John D. Rockefeller
This man owned the largest oil monopoly in the nation at the turn of the century. He used a business method called horizontal integration.
Monopoly
This is when one business owns all of the production of a particular good or service.
Union
This is the name given to a group of workers who work together to improve their salaries and working conditions.
American Federation of Labor
This was the most famous of the early labor unions. It was primarily for skilled workers.
Samuel Gompers
This man was the most famous of the early labor unions for unskilled workers.
Strike
This is the name given to a refusal by employees to continue working.
-Haymarket
-Pullman
-Great Railroad
These were the three famous strikes that took place in the late 1800s.
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer and other men of wealth believed in this idea which applies the concepts of “survival of the fittest” to the business world.
Guilded Age
This term characterized the period in the late 1800s when politicians were very corrupt.
Yellow Journalism
What is the name given to journalism that is exaggerated news reporting?
William Randolph Hurst and Joseph Pulitzer
What are the names of the two most famous yellow journalists at the turn of the century?
Populist Movement
This was the movement in the late 1800s to make life fair for the farmers of the nation.
William Jennings Bryan
This man was the famous speaker for the populist movement. He made a famous speech called the “Cross of Gold” speech.
Silverites
This was the name given to people who wanted to take money off of the gold standard.

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